Legacy DOM was limited in the kinds of elements that could be accessed. Form, link and image elements could be referenced with a hierarchical name that began with the root document object. A hierarchical name could make use of either the names or the sequential index of the traversed elements. For example, a form input element could be accessed as either "document.formName.inputName" or "document.forms.elements."
The Legacy DOM enabled client-side form validation and the popular "rollover" effect.
After the release of ECMAScript, W3C began work on a standardized DOM. The initial DOM standard, known as "DOM Level 1," was recommended by W3C in late 1998. About the same time, Internet Explorer 5.0 shipped with limited support for DOM Level 1. DOM Level 1 provided a complete model for an entire HTML or XML document, including means to change any portion of the document. Non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x and Netscape 4.x were still widely used as late as 2000.
DOM Level 2 was published in late 2000. It introduced the "getElementById" function as well as an event model and support for XML namespaces and CSS.
DOM Level 3, the current release of the DOM specification, published in April 2004, added support for XPath and keyboard event handling, as well as an interface for serializing documents as XML.
DOM Level 4 is currently being developed. Draft version 6 was released in December 2012.
By 2005, large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common ECMAScript-enabled browsers, including Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6 (from 2001), Opera, Safari and Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla, Firefox, SeaMonkey and Camino).
Web browsers rely on layout engines to parse HTML into a DOM. Some layout engines such as Trident/MSHTML and Presto are associated primarily or exclusively with a particular browser such as Internet Explorer and Opera respectively. Others, such as WebKit and Gecko, are shared by a number of browsers, such as Google Chrome, Firefox and Safari. The different layout engines implement the DOM standards to varying degrees of compliance.
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